CRC 1266 - Scales of Transformation

E4: Interregional comparison of Iron Age transformations: from Mediterranean Etruria to Baltic Denmark

The Iron Age was a global time of significant transformation. This project attempts to investigate transformation processes in three European regions: Central Italy, South-West Germany and Denmark.

In Central Italy, the region is distinguished by the presence of powerful multi-generational places surrounded by more unstable internal frontiers. The equilibrium of powerful places, reached in c. 400 BC, was disrupted by the collapse of Veii caused by the rise of Rome. A new power structure was then introduced which ultimately reached SW Germany. The Early Iron Age in South-West Germany is characterised in the emergence of elites, indicated by outstanding graves, Princely Seats and a first incomplete urbanisation process. The Latène C gap is followed by a new urbanisation process leading to the oppida. Furthermore, some minor transformations such as the collapse of the Heuneburg in Ha D2 took place. In Denmark, settlement patterns changed at the beginning of the Iron Age at about 500 BC., marked by the emergence of territoriality (with borders formed by of linear pit zone fortifications). At the same time, tells emerged in contrast to mobile settlements of the previous phase.

Study areas E2Fig. 1: Study areas of subproject E4.

We aim to answer the following questions:

  • Are the different regional transformations part of the same global transformation?
  • How are the different regional transformation processes interrelated?
  • Do they follow the same rhythms?
  • How are natural conditions and triggers interlinked with social, cultural and economic processes?
  • How are the transformation processes shaped in the different regions and which kind of outcome do the transformation processes produce under different regional conditions?


Phase 2 - Research activities 2020-2024

Publications E4

New Publications